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Scientists from both academia and nonprofit organizations coauthored in 2016 to share current scientific research on two widely used antimicrobial chemicals and to motivate broader consideration of the long-term impacts of antimicrobial use (see Appendix I). received an unrestricted research grant from Gojo; Gojo had no role in the support of this research or any of A.

The Statement was introduced at DIOXIN 2016, the 36th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants in Florence, Italy, and has been signed by more than 200 international scientists and medical professionals (see Appendix II).

Green Science Policy Institute has no actual or potential competing financial interests relating to this publication. 2,000 products including soaps, toothpastes, detergents, clothing, toys, carpets, plastics, and paints (Halden 2014; Smith 2013). In surface waters, even when discharged at nanograms per liter concentrations, triclosan and triclocarban can concentrate and accumulate in sediments (Anger et al.

is employed by Environmental Working Group and has no actual or potential competing financial interests to declare. All other authors have no actual or potential competing financial interests to declare. Triclocarban is expected to be similarly prevalent (Halden and Paull 2005).

The high persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of these dioxins and furans in the environment is well-established (Sinkkonen and Paasivirta 2000; Van den Berg et al. Furthermore, triclosan undergoes conversion to 2,8-dibenzodichloro--dioxin (2,8-DCDD) in water when exposed to natural sunlight (Aranami and Readman 2007; Latch et al. EPA 2001) that is also recognized by the State of California as a developmental toxicant [State of California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal EPA) 2017]. Phytoaccumulation of triclosan and triclocarban has been observed in certain vegetable crops grown in biosolids-amended soils. One study calculated a terminal plasma half-life of 21h for triclosan (Sandborgh-Englund et al. Blood-borne triclosan and triclocarban can cross the placenta, and triclosan and its metabolites have been detected in umbilical cord blood at birth (Allmyr et al. Triclosan, triclocarban, and their metabolites have also been detected in human milk samples (Adolfsson-Erici et al. Allergy Eur J Allergy Clin Immunol –91, PMID: 23146048, 10.1111/all.12058. Water Res 91–3896, PMID: 12909107, 10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00335-X. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 0–572, PMID: 19822703, 10.1128/AAC.00615-09. Environ Toxicol Chem 83–2492, PMID: 12389930, 10.1002/etc.5620211130. Formation of chloroform and chlorinated organics by free-chlorine-mediated oxidation of triclosan. Development and use of polyethylene passive samplers to detect triclosans and alkylphenols in an urban estuary. Environ Sci Technol 09–3115, PMID: 21381656, 10.1021/es103650m.

2003) and during heating and combustion (Kanetoshi et al. In a recent study using an artificial skin model, topically applied triclosan transformed into 2,8-DCDD under ultraviolet irradiation (Alvarez-Rivera et al. Chlorinated triclosan derivatives (formed during chlorine disinfection of wastewater and drinking water) transform into tri- and tetra-chlorinated dibenzo--dioxins in sunlight-exposed surface waters (Buth et al. Calculations suggest that incineration of sewage sludge containing triclosan and chlorinated triclosan derivatives contributes significantly to total dioxin emissions in the United States (Doudrick et al. In water disinfection processes, triclosan can react with free chlorine to produce chloroform (Rule et al. In a study testing household dishwashing soaps, lotions, and body washes in chlorinated water under simulated normal household use conditions, all of the products containing triclosan produced either chloroform or other chlorinated byproducts (Fiss et al. The results suggest that under some conditions, the use of triclosan in such products could potentially increase chloroform exposure to nearly double the background levels in tap water. 4-Chloroaniline is recognized by the State of California as known to cause cancer (Cal EPA 2017). Triclosan, triclocarban, and their transformation products and byproducts bioaccumulate in aquatic plants (Coogan et al. Calculations suggest that potential human exposure from contaminated vegetable consumption is less than exposure from personal care product use but greater than exposure from consumption of drinking water (Aryal and Reinhold 2011; Mathews et al. Upon human exposure and uptake, triclosan and triclocarban are metabolized and excreted by the body within 36–72h (Sandborgh-Englund et al. Ricart M, Guasch H, Alberch M, Barceló D, Bonnineau C, Geiszinger A, et al. Triclosan persistence through wastewater treatment plants and its potential: Toxic effects on river biofilms. Environ Sci Technol 76–3185, PMID: 15926568, 10.1021/es048943. Environ Sci Technol 70–2277, PMID: 21341696, 10.1021/es1040865. Shekhar S, Sood S, Showkat S, Lite C, Chandrasekhar A, Vairamani M, et al. Detection of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from maternal blood plasma and amniotic fluid in Indian population. Triclosan: Occurrence and fate of a widely used biocide in the aquatic environment: field measurements in wastewater treatment plants, surface waters and lake sediments. Degradation half-life times of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs for environmental fate modeling. Triclosan may also be transformed to methyl triclosan or to other products (Davis et al. Triclosan contains detectable contaminant levels of polychlorinated dioxins and furans, including toxic and carcinogenic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs, which are formed in amounts that vary with the quality of production technology [Menoutis and Parisi 2002; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 2013; Zheng et al. For example, in one population sample (93% of milk samples over a wide range of concentrations (Toms et al. The ability of triclosan to partition into human milk raises concerns about impacts from exposure on nursing infants. Triclosan and triclocarban have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms (Chalew and Halden 2009; Tamura et al. The continuous exposure of aquatic organisms to triclosan and triclocarban, coupled with their bioaccumulation potential, have led to detectable levels of triclosan and triclocarban throughout aquatic food chains in species such as algae, crustaceans, fish, and marine mammals (Adolfsson-Erici et al. Beecher N, Crawford K, Goldstein N, Kester G, Lono-Batura M, Dziezyk E. A National Biosolids Regulation, Quality, End Use, & Disposal Survey – Final Report. Tamworth, NH: North East Biosolids and Residual Association (NEBRA). Fate of triclosan and triclosan-methyl in sewage treatment plants and surface waters. Buth JM, Grandbois M, Vikesland PJ, Mc Neill K, Arnold WA. Aquatic photochemistry of chlorinated triclosan derivatives: potential source of polychlorodibenzo--dioxins. Removal and formation of chlorinated triclosan derivatives in wastewater treatment plants using chlorine and UV disinfection. Environ Res 1–38, PMID: 24529000, 10.1016/j.envres.20. Orvos D, Versteeg D, Inauen J, Capdevielle M, Rothenstein A, Cunningham V. Paul KB, Hedge JM, Bansal R, Zoeller RT, Peter R, De Vito MJ, et al. Developmental triclosan exposure decreases maternal, fetal, and early neonatal thyroxine: Dynamic and kinetic evaluation of a putative mode-of-action. Environ Sci Technol 31–8838, PMID: 24971846, 10.1021/es501100w. Chemosphere 5–827, PMID: 22273184, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. Schebb NH, Flores I, Kurobe T, Franze B, Ranganathan A, Hammock BD, et al. Bioconcentration, metabolism and excretion of triclocarban in larval Qurt medaka (). Triclosan is a “pre-dioxin” and is associated with formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) throughout its life cycle. Benthic organisms such as worms, crabs, and shellfish can be exposed to triclosan and triclocarban via particulate matter and sediments (Miller et al. In laboratory studies of algae, crustaceans, and fish, both triclosan and triclocarban have been shown to exhibit acute and subchronic toxicity at concentrations found in the environment (Tamura et al. Environ Sci Technol 0–395, PMID: 14750712, 10.1021/es030068p. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 44–1065, PMID: 22057832, 10.1007/s11356-011-0632-z. Am J Infect Control 9–218, PMID: 8807001, 10.1016/S0196-6553(96)90017-6. Environ Sci Technol 45–4551, PMID: 20476764, 10.1021/es1001105. Mortensen ME, Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong LY, Wright DJ, Pirkle JL, et al. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children’s Study. Food Chem Toxicol 1–370, PMID: 10722890, 10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00164-7. Environ Toxicol Chem 38–1349, PMID: 12109732, 10.1002/etc.5620210703. Toxicol Sci 17–379, PMID: 19910387, 10.1093/toxsci/kfp271. Philippat C, Botton J, Calafat AM, Ye X, Charles MA, Slama R, et al. Environ Health Perspect 125–1231, PMID: 23942273, 10.1289/ehp.1206335. Reprod Toxicol 4–401, PMID: 27638325, 10.1016/j.reprotox.20. Pycke BFG, Geer LA, Dalloul M, Abulafia O, Jenck AM, Halden RU. Human fetal exposure to triclosan and triclocarban in an urban population from Brooklyn, New York. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels. Triclosan and triclocarban are not well regulated and may be found in 2,000 consumer and building products (Halden 2014). Triclosan has been detected in both raw and finished drinking water (Loraine and Pettigrove 2006), in ocean water (Xie et al. In personal care products like hand soap, there is no evidence that use of triclosan and triclocarban improves consumer or patient health or prevents disease [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2003; FDA 2016). Triclosan and triclocarban have been detected in the environment throughout the world. A nationwide survey detected triclosan in ∼60% of U.

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As scientists, medical doctors, and public health professionals, we are concerned about the continued widespread use of the chlorinated antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban for the following reasons: We therefore call on the international community to limit the production and use of triclosan and triclocarban and to question the use of other antimicrobials.

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